Linux basics course:
First install Linux Mint, that´s the best.
Choose the Mate version, it´s the best for long term, its fast and stable.
Download .iso file from https://www.linuxmint.com
Verify it , the instructions to verify is there too.
Go first to https://bittiainen.com
The install instructions are there.
And join a to a Linux Mint Facebook group specific your language or English
Q:Maybe a stupid question, can I download Linux mint on VM ware
A:I have not used VM ware, but probably yes, but I woudn´t do that, it´s gonna be slow and resource hungry.
I recommend you run Linux Mint on bare metal and run other VM´s on top of it.
Virtualbox works fine also.
There are other VM systems or like it in linux.
If your laptop/computer supports vitualization in bios level, you can install AQEMU on Linux Mint
Just enable virtualization support in bios first.
Or some windows programs run on wine .
But you have to install wine once you have installed Linux Mint.
Remember always: you always if there is a possible program to use install it from the Linux Mint Package Manager.
Never from a web browser.
At least if you must, you can install Linux Mint in a VM also, and try there what the program from web will do, is it safe.
If you want to keep your windows installation it is best to buy a good new SSD disc for linux and change the disc when needed or different computers for both OS´s.
About bash scripting: you basicly go to a simple linux text editor and put the bash command line commands each to a separate line , and save it. Put the file for cleaniness to a directory called bin in your /home/your_username directory and change the file properties to allow it to run as a program.
If there is no bin directory yet you can make it.
The Linux Mint text editor from Menu /Utilities works fine.
In linux programs don´t have to be named to a specific name like opposite to windows where you have to have .exe or.com or .bat
If you have to do text editing in command line I for starters recommend nano.
Maybe the next thing is to learn about linux filesystem.
And I recommend to install linux on ext4 filesystem.
There is special program and distro that are named the same to handle and format filesystems and partitions: Gparted .
You can find it from: https://distrowatch.com
Gparted distro is ment to be installed on a usb-memory stick.
Same as the Linux Mint install .iso files from: https://www.linuxmint.com
Download the newest versions.
I used rufus.exe which you can download from google search in windows and use it to "burn" each iso to a separate usb-stick,
some use etcher instead of rufus.
After you have Linux Mint installed on the bare metal, you don´t need rufus.exe or etcher.exe, because there is
in Menu/Utilities a special program to install .iso files on usb-memory sticks and an other for formatting usb-memory sticks.
You can start it from the command line also, the program name for installing .iso files is mintstick.
And when you install Linux Mint, let it install the Proprietary Codecs if you use it for your daily driver or for Music and Videos in general. By the way, Spotify works on Linux Mint use the linux version, and Netflix in the browser.
The disc and disc partition names:
The first hard disc is /dev/sda
The first partition of first hard disc is /dev/sda1
The second partition is /dev/sda2 and so on.
The second hard disc or probably the usb-memory stick is /dev/sdb
The first partition on it is /dev/sdb1
and so on.
Do this only if it is the only option:
To enable dual boot system with windows, the first small partition on sda ( /dev/sda1 ) has to be of filesystem type fat32,
and it has to be flagged a boot partition .
Then the partition where windows go has to be at least 32 GB big in size and it has to be of type ntfs .
If there is Windows already installed, you can with Gparted distro on usb-stick, make windows C:\ partition smaller,
to fit linux in the free space. You have to let the filesystem checks go thrue the first time you start windows after this.
It may take long time.
The linux partitions will be of type ext4 .
Install then Windows first and linux after Windows is fully installed.
Note: Windows tend to treat the linux installation badly and make the whole system unstable
Getting help while in linux commandline:
man stands for manual and commandname for any linux command.
Command line here means any linux terminal program or the bare metal one or in ssh remotely.
And do like me, use a basic roll mouse with 2 buttons, learn what you can do with right button (a lot)
Basicly point it to anywhere and click right mouse button and you can choose what else you can do with that object.
I think it´s the easiest way, but there are other ways too.
Next topic: boot order for installation on bare metal:
When using the usb-stick for booting, you have to change in bios, the boot order : the usb-stick as first boot media.
To go to bios you have to connect the usb-stick in the machine and then while powering up press the bios key of the machine several times right when it is booting.
The bios key varies on the machine. On HP it is F10
On others ihe most commons are F12 , F2 and on some veri old Desktop bioses Del
Hopefully there is no bios password, or you have to know it, or remove the battery, and the motherboard battery, that usually resets the bios password
Next topic: linux directory structure:
/ is the root directory, /root is the user directory of the root user (Administrator)
All other user directories are in /home/username
note it´s / not \ like in windows.
Also other directories follow mostly the Unix standard.
But in most modern distros you don´t need to use root user (it might be disabled), but to get root privileges temporarily with sudo command. (if the user belongs to sudo group, you can add a user to sudo group to able him to use sudo).
Using sudo is more safe and recommended.
So it is also in Linux Mint, this applies to command line.
In Linux Mint in general all things are done in Graphical environment, just like in Windows.
In linux you can even install more than one graphical environment programs and choose the one to use before logging in,
but don´t do that until you have learned a lot more and maybe really need it.
I have to explain what is mounting a filesystem:
Any disk or partition can be mounted to show in an otherwise empty directory with a mount command in the command line.
So go to terminal and study man mount.
In Mint removable media is mounted automatically in /media directory (folder).
Otherwise standard is to mount in /mnt.
Programs go usually to directories named bin, some optional programs go to /opt.
Settings files go to /etc or other etc directories.
Some things go to /var directory, like web pages you have if you use the linux as a server and using apache web server program
web pages go to /var/www/html unless you change it.
Hidden directories and files start with a dot . in the name, most necessary is .wine in your home directory, there
goes your fake windows directories. Wine is started from command line:
But before the first time running wine, run winecfg to adjust the configuration and run the first time wine notepad in terminal to test.
cd yourprogram´s folder
wine yourprogramname.exe and hit the Enter button.
You can start wine by putting all that in a script: a textfile.sh in the bin directory in your home directory,
just allow it to run as a program, you can do it with your graphical filemanager by right clicking it and changing the .sh-file´s properties
to allow running as a program. And you can then add a new icon to your panel and to the icon´s command line box point it (the whole path
all the way from /home/yourusername/bin/yourscript.sh ) to the .sh file.
Note: Use windows programs in wine or in a virtual machine only if there is no linux alternative to do the job.
Don´t ever just turn off power, but use the appropriate Menu choice or the shutdown command in the terminal
shutdown (to power off) or to reboot: shutdown -r -t secs 1 time now .
Don´t ever remove removable media unless you first umount it in terminal, learn from man umount, the command is umount
Or easiest: use the graphical filemanager to do that umount.
Permanent mounts are easiest done at the installation of the linux os.
Or in the /etc/fstab file .
cd cd folder name
help man command neme
help info command name
text editor nano fliename
Most necessary basic things can be easily done by first installing mc The Midnight Commander
Once installed it starts in command line with command mc .
But be careful with it, because it is very powerful, at first don´t use it as root user or after sudo learn first more.
But if you must be with the root powers you can first have sudo in terminal open until exit command by giving first sudo -i command.
What to do if the graphical interface don´t start after boot or reboot: in command line you can try the command startx .
About updating software and stuff, Linux Mint has a applet for that in the Panel, and also an applet for network and sound settings and much more, like a second display
You can add panels and icons by right clicking on the panel
and you can right click on the desktop to change look and to open first Menu and add program icons to desktop by right clicking on the Menu choice, might work also dragging with mouse
There are also very powerful potentially destructive commands, you should not use them yet also in Facebook groups there are jokers who put some of those commands in the groups , so be very careful and don´t just copy and paste commands to terminal without understanding.
After you have Linux Mint installed on the bare metal, you don´t need rufus.exe or etcher.exe, because there is
in Menu/Utilities a special program to install .iso files on usb-memory sticks and for formatting usb-memory sticks.
You can start it from command line also the program name is mintstick
But first about the package manager
All programs come in packages in Linux Mint they are like in debian and ubuntu .deb packages and the full potential to see all the available packages there is the package manager in Linux Mint it is program called synaptic , it is a graphical program, but can be started from the Menu or from the command line.
There is in the Menu for beginners also the Programs, actually I don´t exactly remember the name of it in the English version, but it is in the menu above the Program Manager
You can install e.g. wine from either one of them.
Tips for partitioning in the bare metal installation of Linux Mint: make a separate home-partition and point in the installation to use it as the /home . That way if you next time install it a full installation of a new version, you can have all the users´s files and settings ready,
by not formatting the home partition, but to use it again as is for the /home directory.
When installing you have to go to How to install: Other installing options, define the install partitions yourself.
At home partition don´t format it (put the x to that choice) but just point it to be used as /home .
About linux kernel, kernel is the software closest to hardware, it deals with the hardware so you don´t have to,
because at this basic level, it´s hard and involves sometimes binary code, machine level code. But don´t worry, global linux kernel team program the kernel and, Linux Mint does it all for you to update kernel, like updating any program
all you have to know, is that you have to boot after kernel update. And mostly it´s usually good to update kernel,
because it helps you to handle new hardware and sometimes it has security updates.
But if you want to know more go to e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel
In Linux Mint there is Timeshift program for backups, but note it can´t always restore especially big changes, you can
start to use it if you want. It´s good for reversing to previous situation if all is not working after update
or after installing new software.
About the Timeshift configuration: it´s best to place the timeshift (backup) folder in an other disc .